Friday, July 16, 2010

Three Takbeers to end your Salaah = bid`ah

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السلام عليكم

My whole life, I thought that when you end your salaah, you MUST do “three takbeers”. Later, I found out that it is just a “mustaHab” act to end your salaah. What we are going to do is examine this practice of “three takbeers to end your salaah”.

 Is this an act of finishing your salaah or part of something else? Is there ANY SaHeeH hadeeth that alludes to this? And what actions are we suppose to do when we end our salaah?

Here is the section that alludes to this practice. (taken from my personal copy of Wasaa’il Al-Shee`ah)
Wasaa’il Al-Shee`ah, vol. 4, pg. 1030 – 1031, hadeeth # 8419 & 8420
14- بَابُ اسْتِحْبَابِ رَفْعِ الْيَدَيْنِ فَوْقَ الرَّأْسِ عِنْدَ الْفَرَاغِ مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ وَ التَّكْبِيرِ ثَلَاثاً وَ الدُّعَاءِ بِالْمَأْثُورِ 
14 – Chapter on the desirability of raising the hands over the head at the finishing of the salaah, and takbeer thrice, and du`aa by what has been handed down.
 مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بِإِسْنَادِهِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ الْجَمَّالِ قَالَ رَأَيْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع إِذَا صَلَّى وَ فَرَغَ مِنْ صَلَاتِهِ يَرْفَعُ يَدَيْهِ فَوْقَ رَأْسِهِ
وَ رَوَاهُ الشَّيْخُ بِإِسْنَادِهِ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ مِثْلَهُ 
1 – Muhammad b. `Ali b. al-Husayn by his isnad from Safwan b. Mihran the camel driver.  He said: I saw Aboo `Abdillaah عليه السلام when he prayed and ended his salaah (that he would) raise his hands above his head.
And the Shaykh narrated it by his isnaad from al-Husayn b. Sa`eed from Ibn Abee Najran from Safwaan likewise.


1.       Al-Sadooq, Man Laa YaHDuruh Al-Faqeeh, vol. 1, pg. 325, hadeeth # 952
2.      Al-Toosi, Tahdheeb Al-aHkaam, vol. 2, pg. 106, hadeeth # 171
3.      Al-`Aamilee, Wasaa’il Al-Shee`ah, vol. 6, pg. 452, hadeeth # 8419
1.       Al-Majlisi said this hadeeth is SaHeeH
à Milaadh Al-Akhyaar, vol. 3, pg. 613
2.      Al-Majlisi I (Majlisi’s Father) said this hadeeth is SaHeeH
à RawDah Al-Muttaqoon, vol. 2, pg. 369

وَ فِي الْعِلَلِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ حَمْزَةَ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ الْعَلَوِيِّ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ زَيْدٍ الزَّيَّاتِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنِ الْمُفَضَّلِ بْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع لِأَيِّ عِلَّةٍ يُكَبِّرُ الْمُصَلِّي بَعْدَ التَّسْلِيمِ ثَلَاثاً يَرْفَعُ بِهَا يَدَيْهِ فَقَالَ لِأَنَّ النَّبِيَّ ص لَمَّا فَتَحَ مَكَّةَ- صَلَّى بِأَصْحَابِهِ الظُّهْرَ عِنْدَ الْحَجَرِ الْأَسْوَدِ- فَلَمَّا سَلَّمَ رَفَعَ يَدَيْهِ وَ كَبَّرَ ثَلَاثاً وَ قَالَ- لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ وَحْدَهُ أَنْجَزَ وَعْدَهُ وَ نَصَرَ عَبْدَهُ وَ أَعَزَّ جُنْدَهُ وَ غَلَبَ الْأَحْزَابَ وَحْدَهُ فَلَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ يُحْيِي وَ يُمِيتُ وَ هُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ قَدِيرٌ- ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ عَلَى أَصْحَابِهِ فَقَالَ لَا تَدَعُوا هَذَا التَّكْبِيرَ وَ هَذَا الْقَوْلَ فِي دُبُرِ كُلِّ صَلَاةٍ مَكْتُوبَةٍ فَإِنَّ مَنْ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ بَعْدَ التَّسْلِيمِ وَ قَالَ هَذَا الْقَوْلَ كَانَ قَدْ أَدَّى مَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ شُكْرِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى عَلَى تَقْوِيَةِ الْإِسْلَامِ وَ جُنْدِهِ
2 – And in al-`Ilal from `Ali b. Ahmad b. Muhammad from Hamza b. al-Qasim al-`Alawi from Ja`far b. Muhammad b. Malik from Muhammad b. al-Husayn b. Zayd the oil seller from Muhammad b. Sinan from al-Mufaddal b. `Umar.  He said: I said to Aboo `Abdillaah عليه السلام: For which reason does the person doing salaah do takbeer thrice after the tasleem, raising his hands with it? So he said: (It is) because when the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وآله conquered Makka, he prayed the dhuhr with his companions at the Black Stone, and when he had done tasleem he raised his hands and did takbeer thrice.  And he said:  “There is no god but Allah, He alone, He alone.  His fulfilled His promise, and helped His servant, and supported His army, and defeated the confederates He alone.  So for Him is the kingdom and for Him is the praise.  He gives life and He makes die, (and He makes die and He gives life, – in al-`Ilal) and He is powerful over everything.”  Then he turned to him companions, and he said: Do not leave this takbeer and this saying at the end of every written salaah, for verily whoever does that after the tasleem and says this saying has fulfilled what was obligatory upon him of thanks to Allah ta`ala upon (i.e. for) the strengthening of Islam and its army.

  1. Al-Sadooq, `Ilal Al-Sharaa’i`, vol. 2, ch. 78, pg. 360, hadeeth # 1
  2. Al-`Aamilee, Wasaa’il Al-Shee`ah, vol. 6, pg. 452 – 453, hadeeth # 8420
  3. Al-Kashaanee, Al-Waafee, vol. 8, pg. 791
  4. Muhaddith Al-Noori, Mustadarak Al-Wasaa’il, vol. 5, ch. 12, pg. 52, hadeeth # 5342

As you can see only 1 of the 2 aHaadeeth that are presented as the “source” for doing three takbeers after salaah is actually talking about doing three takbeers. The first Haadeeth, which is SaHeeH, doesn’t talk about doing three takbeers at all, but it is talking about raising your hands (most likely your hands together with the palms facing towards the ceiling) above your head (fawqa ra’s).

Now, we move on to the second hadeeth that discusses the three takbeers. First, we will break down the isnaad provided, and then we will break down the actual hadeeth to see what it is really saying.

The isnaad provided has 4 weak points (in red), and here are the “weak links” in the chain.

عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ is Majhool (Unknown) according to:
  1. Al-Khoei, Mu`jam Rijaal Al-Hadeeth, vol. 11, pg. 252, person # 7897

جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ is Da`eef Jiddan (Very Weak) according to:
  1. Al-Najaashee, Rijaal, pg. 122, person # 313
  2. Ibn Al-GhaDaa’iree, Kitaab Al-Du`afaa, pg. 48
  3. Al-Toosi, Rijaal, pg. 418, person # 6037 (Toosi said he is thiqah, but the people of Qum said he is weak)    
  4. Al-Hillee, Al-KhulaaSah, pg. 210, person # 3 (Hillee said you should NOT act upon his narrations)

مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ is Da`eef (Weak) according to:
  1.  Al-Toosi, Fihrist, pg. 407, person # 620
  2.  Al-Toosi, Rijaal, pg. 364, person # 5394
  3.  Al-Najaashee, Rijaal, pg. 328, person # 888
  4.  Al-GhaDaa’iree, pg. 92, person # 130

الْمُفَضَّلِ بْنِ عُمَرَ is Da`eef (Weak) according to:
  1. Ibn GhaDaa’iree, Kitaab Al-Du`afaa, pg. 88, person # 117
  2. Al-Najaashee, Rijaal, pg. 416, person # 1112
  3. Al-Hillee, Al-KhulaaSah, pg. 258, person # 1

Based off of this isnaad, this hadeeth can be graded as Da`eef Jiddan (Very Weak). Usually in fiqhi matters, that is when the isnaad of aHaadeeth are looked at VERY closely.

Some people might argue that this is a mustaHab (recommended) act, so no need to go through this strenuous process of looking at the isnaad (chain of narrators). That’s okay, let’s look at the matn (content) of the hadeeth, and see what is the hadeeth saying.

Even if you want to follow that hadeeth, the three takbeers are done as a ta`qeeb (acts done AFTER salaah is done). If you notice the scanned image of Wasaa’il, on the top of the second image provided, it says that it is in the section of Ta`qeeb, which are things done after salaah, such as tasbeeH, du`aa, etc.

If you read the hadeeth carefully, this is how the procedure is supposed to be.
  1. Finish your salaah with a ONE tasleem (or two depending on if it is a jamaa`ah or a furada (individual))è  This will be discussed a little later
  2.  After your salaah is done, raise your hand above your head (fawqa al-ra's)è  This is based off of the previous narration which says to put your hands above your head
  3. THEN, you recite three takbeers
  4. After that, you recite the du`aa mentioned in the hadeeth
Here is what Al-Toosi has said concerning the 3 takbeers, this is found in the section of Ta`qeeb (things done AFTER salaah)

فإذا انصرف من صلاته يستحبّ له أن يقول قبل قيامه من مصلّاه: «اللّه أكبر» ثلاث مرّات يرفع بها يديه إلى شحمتي أذنيه،
"One is recommended to say before standing up to leave the place of prayer. Raise his hands up to the earlobes and say 'Allaahu Akbar' three times…"
·         Al-Toosi, Al-Nihaayah fee Mujarrad Al-Fiqh wa Al-Fataawa, pg. 84

 As you can see, this action (three takbeers) in NO WAY ends your salaah, thinking that this action is INDEED ending your salaah is a bid`ah. Also, you can see that this hadeeth provided does not talk about the “up and down” motion of your hands three times, as you see some of our shee`ahs do.

Now, the question arises, if this (three takbeers) doesn’t end your salaah, then what action(s) end your salaah?

Here are narrations that show that the ENDING of your salaah is the tasleem.
الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع يَقُولُ فِي رَجُلٍ صَلَّى الصُّبْحَ فَلَمَّا جَلَسَ فِي الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَتَشَهَّدَ رَعَفَ قَالَ فَلْيَخْرُجْ فَلْيَغْسِلْ أَنْفَهُ ثُمَّ لْيَرْجِعْ فَلْيُتِمَّ صَلَاتَهُ فَإِنَّ آخِرَ الصَّلَاةِ التَّسْلِيمُ
He said: I heard Aboo `Abdillaah (as) saying regarding a man who prayed as-subh (fajr), and when he sat in the two rak`at before he did tashahhud he had a nosebleed.  He said: So he is to leave and wash his nose, then he is to return and complete his salaah, for the end of salaah is the tasleem.
  1. Al-Toosi, Tahdheeb Al-aHkaam, vol. 2, ch. 15, pg. 320, hadeeth # 163

  1. Al-Majlisi said this hadeeth is Muwaththaq (Reliable)
   à Milaadh Al-Akhyaar, vol. 4, pg. 481

    مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ قَالَ قَالَ لِي أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع‏ كُلُّ مَا ذَكَرْتَ اللَّهَ بِهِ وَ النَّبِيَّ ص فَهُوَ مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ وَ إِنْ قُلْتَ- السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَ عَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ فَقَدِ انْصَرَفْتَ
    He said: Aboo `Abdillaah (as) said to me: Whenever you mention (or, remember) Allah by it and the Prophet (pbuh), then it is from salaah.  And if you say “as-salam `alayna wa `ala `ibadillahi s-saliheen” then you have departed (i.e. you’ve completed your salaah).
    1.  Al-Kulayni, Al-Kaafi, vol. 3, pg. 337-338, hadeeth # 6

    1. Al-Majlisi said this hadeeth is SaHeeH
       à Mir’aat Al-`Uqool, vol. 15, pg. 162

      Another question that arises is, what type of action / motion should we do our tasleem in?
      If you are the leader of the prayer or if you are praying alone then you do tasleem ONCE. And if you are follower (ma’moon) in the jamaa`ah, then you do tasleem TWICE. Here are the aHaadeeth that talk about this.
       وَ بِهَذَا الْإِسْنَادِ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع إِذَا كُنْتَ فِي صَفٍّ فَسَلِّمْ تَسْلِيمَةً عَنْ يَمِينِكَ وَ تَسْلِيمَةً عَنْ يَسَارِكَ لِأَنَّ عَنْ يَسَارِكَ مَنْ يُسَلِّمُ عَلَيْكَ وَ إِذَا كُنْتَ إِمَاماً فَسَلِّمْ تَسْلِيمَةً وَ أَنْتَ مُسْتَقْبِلُ الْقِبْلَةِ
       He said: Aboo `Abdillaah (as) said: If you are in a row, then do a tasleem from to your right and a tasleem to your left, for to your left is someone who is doing tasleem upon you.  And if you are an imam, then do a tasleem while you are facing qibla.
      1. Al-Kulayni, Al-Kaafi, vol. 3, pg. 338, hadeeth # 7

      1. Al-Majlisi said this hadeeth is SaHeeH
         à Mir’aat Al-`Uqool, vol. 15, pg. 163

        From this hadeeth, you can see that you do two tasleems if you are in a row and one if you are an Imaam or reading alone. Now, when you do your tasleem, DO NOT move your head SO MUCH to the right and to the left as if you are looking over your shoulder, but you slightly move it to the right and to the left. (NOTE: You are always doing tasleem to the right unless you are the leader of the prayer then you do tasleem forward)

        One FINAL question arises, what should you do if you are in jamaa`ah, and you are at the VERY left end of the row, and NO ONE is to the left of you, just people to the right. The answer can be found from this hadeeth.

         وَ عَنْهُ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع الْإِمَامُ يُسَلِّمُ وَاحِدَةً وَ مَنْ وَرَاءَهُ يُسَلِّمُ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ عَنْ شِمَالِهِ أَحَدٌ سَلَّمَ وَاحِدَةً
        He said:  Aboo `Abdillaah (as) said: The imam does tasleem once and whoso is behind him does tasleem twice.  So if there is there no one to his left, he does tasleem once.
        1. Al-Toosi, Tahdheeb Al-aHkaam, vol. 2, ch. 8, pg. 93, hadeeth # 114
        2. Al-Toosi, Al-IstibSaar, vol. 1, ch. 199, pg. 346, hadeeth # 2

        1. Al-Majlisi said this hadeeth is SaHeeH
           à Milaadh Al-Akhyaar, vol. 3, pg. 573

          From this hadeeth, the final question is answered, if there is NO ONE to the left of you in a row (i.e. you are at the left end of a row), then you will only do ONE tasleem (to your right).

          In conclusion, thinking that the “three takbeers” end your salaah, you are introducing a bid`ah, because the “three takbeers” do not in ANY way end your salaah, because your salaah is complete / ended when you do tasleem (either once or twice depending on which type of salaah you are doing and where you are in the jamaa`ah).

          السلام عليكم

          Sunday, July 4, 2010

          `Abd Allaah bin Saba

          Click Here to download this article in PDF format.

          السلام عليكم
          This is an analysis of ‘Abd Allaah bin Saba. I have read around the internet a lot of lies concerning this figure, I will show you the true Shee`ah position regarding this figure, and what was he (ibn Saba) attempting to do.

          Here are the scholarly opinion regarding ‘Abd Allaah bin Saba, by Shee`ah Rijaal scholars.

          `Abd Allaah bin Saba is accursed / ghullah (exagerrator) according to:
          ·         Al-Toosi, Rijaal, pg. 75, person # 718 (in the book)
          ·         Al-Hillee, Al-KhulaaSah, pg. 237, person # 19 (section of ‘Abd Allaah)
          ·         Al-Khoei, Mu’jam Rijaal Al-Hadeeth, vol. 10, pg. 192, person # 6878

          Here is what Al-Toosi has said concerning `Abd Allaah bin Saba (Al-Toosi, Rijaal, pg. 75, person # 718)
          (Click to enlarge)

          "`Abd Allaah bin Saba - returned to kufr (disbelief) and it showed that he was a ghullah (exagerrator)"

          Now here are 3 SaHeeH aHaadeeth that talks about ‘Abd Allaah bin Saba, the first chain is one of the most impeccable chains you can get in Shee`ah hadeeth books. This is like our “golden” chain.

          1.) حدثني محمد بن قولويه، قال حدثني سعد بن عبد الله، قال حدثنا يعقوب بن يزيد و محمد بن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن سالم، قال : سمعت أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام) يقول و هو يحدث أصحابه بحديث عبد الله بن سبإ و ما ادعى من الربوبية في أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب، فقال إنه لما ادعى ذلك فيه استتابه أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) فأبى أن يتوب فأحرقه بالنار.
          Hishaam bin Salim, who said that he heard it from Imam Aboo `Abd Allaah (AS) when he told that `Abd Allaah bin Saba called (to people) the lordship/divinity of Imaam `Alee (AS). Upon that ‘Alee ordered him to repent, but he refused. Then Ali let him burn in fire."
          ·         Al-Kashee, Rijaal, pg. 107, hadeeth # 171

          2.) حدثني محمد بن قولويه قال حدثني سعد بن عبد الله قال حدثنا يعقوب بن يزيد و محمد بن عيسى عن علي بن مهزيار عن فضالة بن أيوب الأزدي عن أبان بن عثمان قال سمعت أبا عبد الله (ع) يقول لعن الله عبد الله بن سبإ إنه ادعى الربوبية في أمير المؤمنين (ع) و كان و الله أمير المؤمنين (ع) عبدا لله طائعا الويل لمن كذب علينا و إن قوما يقولون فينا ما لا نقوله في أنفسنا نبرأ إلى الله منهم نبرأ إلى الله منهم.
          I heard Aboo `Abd Allaah (AS) saying: 'May Allaah curse `Abd Allaah bin Saba, he claimed a divinity / lordship for Ameer Al-Mu’mineen (AS). By Allaah, Amierul-Mu'mineen (AS) was volunterily the slave of Allah. Woe to him who lie about us, for there are people who say about us what we don't say about ourselves, we disassociate ourselves to Allah from them, we disassociate ourselves to Allah from them'."
          ·         Al-Kashee, Rijaal, pg. 107, hadeeth # 172

          Here is another SaHeeH hadeeth about Ibn Saba, and him being cursed.
          3.)و بهذا الإسناد عن يعقوب بن يزيد عن ابن أبي عمير. و أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى عن أبيه و الحسين بن سعيد عن ابن أبي عمير عن هشام بن سالم عن أبي حمزة الثمالي قال قال علي بن الحسين (ع) لعن الله من كذب علينا إني ذكرت عبد الله بن سبإ فقامت كل شعرة في جسدي لقد ادعى أمرا عظيما ما له لعنه الله كان علي (ع) و الله عبدا لله صالحا أخو رسول الله (ص) ما نال الكرامة من الله إلا بطاعته لله و لرسوله و ما نال رسول الله (ص) الكرامة من الله إلا بطاعته.
          'May the curse of Allah be upon those who tell lies about us. I mentioned `Abd Allaah Ibn Saba and each hair in my body stood up, Allah cursed him. Ali was, by Allah, a proper servant of Allah, the brother of the Messenger of Allah . He did not earn the graciousness/honor from Allah except with the obedience to Allah and His Messenger. And (similarly) the Messenger of Allah did not earn the honor from Allah except with his obedience to Allah'."
          ·         Al-Kashee, Rijaal, pg. 107, hadeeth # 173

          Each one of these aHaadeeth goes through multiple routes:
          1st hadeeth = 2 different routes
          2nd hadeeth = 2 different routes
          3rd hadeeth = 3 different routes

          2 + 2 + 3 = 7 different isnaads, all of them saying that Ibn Sabaa is mal`oon (accursed). Some people unfortunately say he is a "fake" or "myth". I HIGHLY doubt our Imaams will be giving la`n (curse) upon "thin air".

          Now, here is the something that has been spread around the internet, and must be rejected.

          ذكر بعض أهل العلم أن عبد الله بن سبإ كان يهوديا فأسلم و والى عليا (ع) و كان يقول و هو على يهوديته في يوشع بن نون وصي موسى بالغلو فقال في إسلامه بعد وفاة رسول الله (ص) في علي (ع) مثل ذلك و كان أول من شهر بالقول بفرض إمامة علي و أظهر البراءة من أعدائه و كاشف مخالفيه و أكفرهم فمن هاهنا قال من خالف الشيعة أصل التشيع و الرفض مأخوذ من اليهودية.
          Some people of knowledge mentioned that `Abd Allaah bin Saba' was a Jew, who embraced Islam and supported Ali. While he was still a Jew, he used to go to extremism in calling Yousha' bin Noon as the appointee (successor) of Moses, thus after embracing Islam - after the demise of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله - he said the like about Ali. It was him who first publicly announced the mandatory Imaamah for Ali, rejected and disowned his enemies, debated his opponents and called them Kafirs. Hence, those who oppose the Shi'ites often say: The Shee`ah and Rejectors (Rafidah) have their roots in Judaism ".
          ·         Al-Kashee, Rijaal, pg. 107, hadeeth # 174

          Some scholars have claimed that these are the words Al-Kashee, even if we take this into consideration, this statement is still rejected as there are MANY SaHeeH narrations saying that ‘Abd Allaah bin Saba called people to the divinity of Imaam `Alee (AS), not his Imaamah.

          As you can see, ‘Abd Allaah bin Saba is a guy who has been cursed, by our Imaams (AS), because he tried to preach to the people the divinity of Imaam `Alee, and NOT the Imaamah of Imaam `Alee (AS), as this has been circulating the internet.

          و عليكم السلام